By Shih-Chii Liu, Jorg Kramer, Giacomo Indiveri, Tobias Delbruck, Rodney Douglas
Neuromorphic engineers paintings to enhance the functionality of man-made structures throughout the improvement of chips and structures that procedure details jointly utilizing basically analog circuits. This publication provides the vital recommendations required for the inventive and winning layout of analog VLSI circuits. The dialogue is weighted towards novel circuits that emulate usual sign processing. not like so much circuits in advertisement or business functions, those circuits function frequently within the subthreshold or vulnerable inversion zone. additionally, their performance isn't really restricted to linear operations, but additionally encompasses many attention-grabbing nonlinear operations just like these taking place in common structures. issues comprise machine physics, linear and nonlinear circuit types, translinear circuits, photodetectors, floating-gate units, noise research, and strategy know-how.
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Submit yr word: First released January 1st 2012
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Additional resources for Analog VLSI: Circuits and Principles
22, because the above approximations are not completely justified; and because of surface effects at the semiconductor boundaries. Figure 2. 13compares the current-voltage 34 Chapter 2 characteristics of an ideal diode and a real diode. In semiconductors with small intrinsic carrier concentrations ni, such as silicon, the reverse diffusion current density (given by Js for reverse biases larger than approximately 4UT ) may be dominated by a superimposed reverse generation current density J g e n .
Hence, the Fermi level is near the conduction band edge for ND near the valence band edge for N A � Nv, as we noted before. 9) � Nc and Current Densities In the presence of external electric and magnetic fields the thermal equilibrium in the semiconductor is disturbed. The behavior of charged particles in such fields is described by the Maxwell equations. In normal semiconductor oper ation magnetic effects can be neglected. The most important consequence of the Maxwell equations, for our purposes, relates the charge density p (charge per volume) to the divergence of the electric field£: P \7.
The fabrication steps needed to fabricate a MOSFET are described in Chapter 1 3 . Almost all modem MOS processes are CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) In a CMOS process, both nFETs and pFETs are fabricated on the same substrate. In this chapter, we will assume a single well CMOS process in which the nFET rests in the common p - substrate, and 4 It is also called an n-type MOSFET or NMOS. 5 It is also called p-type MOSFET or PMOS. MOSFET Characteristics 51 the pFET rests in an n-well within the substrate as shown in Fig.