Download American Political Leaders 1789-2005 (American Leaders) by CQ Press Editors PDF

By CQ Press Editors

Newly up-to-date, this consultant includes biographical details on nearly 9,000 of an important US elected and appointed leaders. prepared for speedy, effortless reference, this can be a consultant for researchers, scholars, or somebody who wishes names, dates, and different uncomplicated details on US leaders in a single handy resource.

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Additional info for American Political Leaders 1789-2005 (American Leaders)

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On Aug. 4, 1977, a bill was signed into law that created a Department of Energy, which came into existence on Oct. 1, 1977. Bills to elevate the Veterans Administration to cabinet-level status had been introduced in at least seventeen successive Congresses before the Department of Veterans Affairs finally was established in legislation signed into law Oct. 25, 1988. The Department of Veterans Affairs officially opened its doors March 15, 1989. By January 2005 the department employed more than 220,000 workers, making it second only to the Defense Department in size.

During the latter part of the nineteenth century an attempt was made to move responsibility for the cabinet from the White House to Congress, thereby giving Congress considerable access to information on the executive branch. Legislation was introduced to allow department heads to occupy seats on the House floor. The proposal was never voted into law. Early in the twentieth century the cabinet grew in size but continued to play only a modest role as an advisory body. President Woodrow Wilson, for example, rarely met with his cabinet.

However, because the secretary had not been given any real authority, administrative problems arose. These were resolved by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949, which reorganized the National Military Establishment into the Department of Defense and consolidated authority in the secretary of defense. Thus, the office predates the department by two years. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) evolved from a series of presidential reorganization plans and laws that became effective between 1939 and 1953.

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