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4). 65T Pa ΂ 273 ϩT΃ where es(T ) is the saturated vapour pressure in Pa and T is the air temperature in degrees Celsius. Second, the ambient (meaning local actual) vapour pressure ea may be any value between zero and es. The ratio of actual to saturated vapour pressure is called the relative humidity hr, often expressed as a percentage. If water vapour is evaporated into dry air (for example, as the air blows over the sea surface or above a grassy plain), then the vapour pressure will increase towards es, but cannot exceed it.

95 g molϪ1 Mixed into the quite uniform population of atmospheric molecules is a large range of additional materials that vary greatly in concentration both in space and time: • • • • • • • • • • sulphur dioxide may be released directly into the atmosphere by volcanoes, or formed as the oxidation product of the dimethyl sulphide released by oceanic phytoplankton oxides of nitrogen are created when anything burns nitrous oxide is emitted from the soil surface by bacterial denitrification hydrogen sulphide is produced by anaerobic decay ammonia is released from animal waste products ozone is formed in the stratosphere, by the action of UV radiation on oxygen ozone is also found in the troposphere, via both diffusion down from the stratosphere and local natural photochemistry volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from many different species of vegetation, especially coniferous and eucalyptus forests non-biogenic particles are generated by volcanoes or entrainment from the soil biogenic particles include pollen, spores, and sea salt.

Since this force decreases with height, pressure decreases with height. Considering the force dF acting on a small vertical column of height dz, area A and density ␳, with the acceleration due to gravity of g, we have dF ϭ Ϫg␳A dz (the minus sign is because the force acts downwards, but z is usually taken to be positive upwards). Hence dp ϭ df/A ϭ Ϫg␳ dz But for an ideal gas at temperature T ␳ ϭ mp/kT where m is the molecular mass and k is the Boltzmann constant. Hence 1 mg dp ϭ Ϫ dz p kT which integrates to give the hydrostatic equation dz Ά ͵ mg kT · p ϭ p0 exp Ϫ z 0 where p0 is the surface pressure.

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