By Ivar Lodemel, Amilcar Moreira
The decade of the twentieth century was once marked through a shift in how welfare-states care for these on the backside of the source of revenue ladder. This shift concerned the introduction/strengthening of work-obligations as a situation for receiving minimal source of revenue advantages - which, in a few international locations, was once complemented via efforts to aid recipients go back to the labour industry, specifically in the course of the funding in energetic labour industry regulations (ALMP).
Based on case-studies of advancements within the US and 8 ecu international locations (UK, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Germany, France, Portugal and the Czech Republic), this booklet argues that this primary set of reforms was once by way of a moment wave of reforms that, when deepening the trail in the direction of the point of interest on paintings, brings vital strategies- be it the instruments used to assist recipients again to the labour markets (ex., monetary incentives) and in how activation rules are added (ex., integration of profit and employment services).
Looking on the array of advancements brought in this interval, we parent key traits.
The first issues the strengthening of the function of the marketplace within the governance of activation, that's obvious within the strengthening of the point of interest on paintings, or the marketisation of employment providers. the second one, issues a stream in the direction of the individualisation of carrier supply, noticeable within the enlargement of using own motion plans or in efforts to streamline carrier supply.
Finally, we exhibit that the onset of the sovereign debt main issue in Europe, has prompted a brand new wave of reforms. while tentative basically, our research issues to a caring pattern of the curtailment or merits (Portugal) and activation providers (Netherlands, Czech Republic) to minimal source of revenue recipients and, in parallel, one more deepening of the focal point on work-conditionality (UK and Norway).
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Extra resources for Activation or Workfare? Governance and the Neo-Liberal Convergence
Rather than training, these tasks mainly involved low-skilled work (Dahl, 2003), in contrast to the broader aims of the ALMPs that were primarily reserved for social insurance recipients, which aimed to increase employment potential and workplace efficacy and, thus, the long-term workplace success of the program’s participants (Raaum, Røed, & Torp, 2002). Younger and immigrant recipients of social assistance were most frequently targeted with work requirements or the threat of sanction (Harsløf, 2008).
The next section considers relevant developments in other areas of social policy and discusses how many of these developments, in fact, offer a contrasting story to the ideals and aims of the proposed new approach toward social assistance. This account sets the stage for the final section (The Dynamics of Activation Reforms), where we focus more particularly on the Qualification Program to determine whether this development differs from those in other welfare arenas and represents a true departure for the workfare-style social activation of the 1990s.
The administration began to emphasize human capital–based activation ideologies for those who were defined as being the most marginalized (Hagen & Lødemel, 2003). The government issued its Action Plan Against Poverty white paper, which emphasized the use of activation measures as a means of increasing work activity and self-sufficiency among these client groups (Sosialdepartementet, 2002). Beginning in 2003, a program piloted in just over 10% of Norway’s municipalities targeted long-term social assistance recipients, young people between the ages of 20 and 24, single parents, long-term social assistance recipients, immigrants, and individuals receiving substitution treatment (Schafft & Spjelkavik, 2006; Rønsen & Skarðhamar, 2007).