By Habibullah Tegey - Barbara Robson
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Extra resources for A Reference Grammar of Pashto
2 Defining gender and conceptualizing the different ways in which gender intersects with other sociocultural categories, such as sexuality, class or ethnicity, has been central to feminist theory. Feminism, according to Braidotti (1991, 147), is a critical theoretical movement through which women “situate themselves in reality so to redesign their ‘feminine’ condition”. One of the basic arguments employed by patriarchy for legitimizing and naturalizing women’s oppression is biological determinism.
Pl’ The gender of the noun controls agreement with other elements in the noun phrase or the predicate. fem In examples 20 and 21, agreement is realized outside the noun phrase, with the gender of the subject noun phrase controlling agreement with the adjective and the participle in the predicate: GRAMMATICAL GENDER (20) O κήπος είναι όμορφος. ’ (21) H φοιτήτρια είναι πολύ θυμωμένη. ’ 25 Gender agreement is based on mixed semantic and syntactic principles (see Chila-Markopoulou 2003 for a systematic analysis of gender agreement in Greek).
The assignment of neuter gender in the latter two nouns is due to morphological principles, as we will see later on in this section. In Greek, referent’s sex is marked not only grammatically but also lexically. Certain nouns carry the semantic property of maleness/femaleness, that is, they have lexical gender. For example, the nouns άντρας [ándras] ‘man’, θείος [θíos] ‘uncle’ and πατέρας [patéras] ‘father’ encode the semantic property of maleness as part of their lexical meaning, while the nouns γυναίκα [ʝinéka] ‘woman’, θεία [θía] ‘aunt’ and μητέρα [mitéra] ‘mother’ carry the semantic property of femaleness.